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While theology has turned into a secular field , religious adherents still consider theology to be a discipline that helps them live and understand concepts such as life and love and that helps them lead lives of obedience to the deities they follow or worship. The English equivalent "theology" Theologie, Teologye had evolved by Augustine of Hippo defined the Latin equivalent, theologia , as "reasoning or discussion concerning the Deity"; [6] Richard Hooker defined "theology" in English as "the science of things divine ". Theology begins with the assumption that the divine exists in some form, such as in physical , supernatural , mental , or social realities , and that evidence for and about it may be found via personal spiritual experiences or historical records of such experiences as documented by others.

The study of these assumptions is not part of theology proper but is found in the philosophy of religion , and increasingly through the psychology of religion and neurotheology. Theology then aims to structure and understand these experiences and concepts, and to use them to derive normative prescriptions for how to live our lives. Theologians use various forms of analysis and argument experiential , philosophical , ethnographic , historical , and others to help understand , explain , test, critique , defend or promote any myriad of religious topics.

As in philosophy of ethics and case law , arguments often assume the existence of previously resolved questions, and develop by making analogies from them to draw new inferences in new situations. The study of theology may help a theologian more deeply understand their own religious tradition , [9] another religious tradition, [10] or it may enable them to explore the nature of divinity without reference to any specific tradition.

Theology may be used to propagate , [11] reform, [12] or justify a religious tradition or it may be used to compare , [13] challenge e. Theology might also help a theologian address some present situation or need through a religious tradition, [14] or to explore possible ways of interpreting the world. Drawing on Greek Stoic sources, the Latin writer Varro distinguished three forms of such discourse: mythical concerning the myths of the Greek gods , rational philosophical analysis of the gods and of cosmology and civil concerning the rites and duties of public religious observance.

Some Latin Christian authors, such as Tertullian and Augustine , followed Varro's threefold usage, [19] though Augustine also used the term more simply to mean 'reasoning or discussion concerning the deity' [6]. In patristic Greek Christian sources, theologia could refer narrowly to devout and inspired knowledge of, and teaching about, the essential nature of God. The Latin author Boethius , writing in the early 6th century, used theologia to denote a subdivision of philosophy as a subject of academic study, dealing with the motionless, incorporeal reality as opposed to physica , which deals with corporeal , moving realities.

In scholastic Latin sources, the term came to denote the rational study of the doctrines of the Christian religion , or more precisely the academic discipline which investigated the coherence and implications of the language and claims of the Bible and of the theological tradition the latter often as represented in Peter Lombard 's Sentences , a book of extracts from the Church Fathers. In the Renaissance , especially with Florentine Platonist apologists of Dante 's poetics, the distinction between "poetic theology" theologia poetica and "revealed" or Biblical theology serves as steppingstone for a revival of philosophy as independent of theological authority.

It is in this last sense, theology as an academic discipline involving rational study of Christian teaching, that the term passed into English in the fourteenth century, [24] although it could also be used in the narrower sense found in Boethius and the Greek patristic authors, to mean rational study of the essential nature of God โ€” a discourse now sometimes called theology proper.

From the 17th century onwards, it also became possible to use the term theology to refer to study of religious ideas and teachings that are not specifically Christian e. The term theology has been deemed by some as only appropriate to the study of religions that worship a supposed deity a theos , i. They suggest the term is less appropriate in religious contexts that are organized differently religions without a single deity, or that deny that such subjects can be studied logically.

In Jewish theology , the historical absence of political authority has meant that most theological reflection has happened within the context of the Jewish community and synagogue , including through rabbinical discussion of Jewish law and Midrash rabbinic biblical commentaries. Jewish theology is linked to ethics and therefore has implications for how one behaves.

Christian theology is the study of Christian belief and practice. Such study concentrates primarily upon the texts of the Old Testament and the New Testament as well as on Christian tradition. Christian theologians use biblical exegesis, rational analysis and argument. Theology might be undertaken to help the theologian better understand Christian tenets, to make comparisons between Christianity and other traditions, to defend Christianity against objections and criticism, to facilitate reforms in the Christian church, to assist in the propagation of Christianity, to draw on the resources of the Christian tradition to address some present situation or need, or for a variety of other reasons.

Islamic theological discussion that parallels Christian theological discussion is called Kalam ; the Islamic analogue of Christian theological discussion would more properly be the investigation and elaboration of Sharia or Fiqh. To find an equivalent for 'theology' in the Christian sense it is necessary to have recourse to several disciplines, and to the usul al-fiqh as much as to kalam. Gardet [32]. Within Hindu philosophy , there is a tradition of philosophical speculation on the nature of the universe, of God termed " Brahman ", Paramatma and Bhagavan in some schools of Hindu thought and of the Atman soul.

The Sanskrit word for the various schools of Hindu philosophy is Darshana meaning "view" or "viewpoint".

Faith in Honesty: The essential nature of theology

Vaishnava theology has been a subject of study for many devotees, philosophers and scholars in India for centuries. A large part of its study lies in classifying and organizing the manifestations of thousands of gods and their aspects. In recent decades the study of Hinduism has also been taken up by a number of academic institutions in Europe, such as the Oxford Centre for Hindu Studies and Bhaktivedanta College.

Some academic inquiries within Buddhism , dedicated to the investigation of a Buddhist understanding of the world, prefer the designation Buddhist philosophy to the term Buddhist theology, since Buddhism lacks the same conception of a theos.

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Jose Ignacio Cabezon, who argues that the use of "theology" is appropriate, can only do so, he says, because "I take theology not to be restricted to discourse on God I take 'theology' not to be restricted to its etymological meaning. In that latter sense, Buddhism is of course a theological, rejecting as it does the notion of God. The history of the study of theology in institutions of higher education is as old as the history of such institutions themselves.

For instance, Taxila was an early centre of Vedic learning, possible from the 6th century BC or earlier; [35] the Platonic Academy founded in Athens in the 4th century BC seems to have included theological themes in its subject matter; [36] the Chinese Taixue delivered Confucian teaching from the 2nd century BC; [37] the School of Nisibis was a centre of Christian learning from the 4th century AD; [38] [39] Nalanda in India was a site of Buddhist higher learning from at least the 5th or 6th century AD; [40] and the Moroccan University of Al-Karaouine was a centre of Islamic learning from the 10th century, [41] as was Al-Azhar University in Cairo.

The earliest universities were developed under the aegis of the Latin Church by papal bull as studia generalia and perhaps from cathedral schools. It is possible, however, that the development of cathedral schools into universities was quite rare, with the University of Paris being an exception. In the early medieval period , most new universities were founded from pre-existing schools, usually when these schools were deemed to have become primarily sites of higher education.

Many historians state that universities and cathedral schools were a continuation of the interest in learning promoted by monasteries.

Christian theology

During the High Middle Ages, theology was therefore the ultimate subject at universities, being named "The Queen of the Sciences" and serving as the capstone to the Trivium and Quadrivium that young men were expected to study. This meant that the other subjects including Philosophy existed primarily to help with theological thought.

Christian theology's preeminent place in the university began to be challenged during the European Enlightenment , especially in Germany.


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Since the early nineteenth century, various different approaches have emerged in the West to theology as an academic discipline. Much of the debate concerning theology's place in the university or within a general higher education curriculum centres on whether theology's methods are appropriately theoretical and broadly speaking scientific or, on the other hand, whether theology requires a pre-commitment of faith by its practitioners, and whether such a commitment conflicts with academic freedom. In some contexts, theology has been held to belong in institutions of higher education primarily as a form of professional training for Christian ministry.

This was the basis on which Friedrich Schleiermacher , a liberal theologian, argued for the inclusion of theology in the new University of Berlin in For instance, in Germany , theological faculties at state universities are typically tied to particular denominations, Protestant or Roman Catholic, and those faculties will offer denominationally-bound konfessionsgebunden degrees, and have denominationally bound public posts amongst their faculty; as well as contributing 'to the development and growth of Christian knowledge' they 'provide the academic training for the future clergy and teachers of religious instruction at German schools.

In the United States, several prominent colleges and universities were started in order to train Christian ministers. Harvard , [53] Georgetown , [54] Boston University , Yale , [55] and Princeton [56] all had the theological training of clergy as a primary purpose at their foundation. Seminaries and bible colleges have continued this alliance between the academic study of theology and training for Christian ministry. In some contexts, scholars pursue theology as an academic discipline without formal affiliation to any particular church though members of staff may well have affiliations to churches , and without focussing on ministerial training.

In some contemporary contexts, a distinction is made between theology, which is seen as involving some level of commitment to the claims of the religious tradition being studied, and religious studies , which by contrast is normally seen as requiring that the question of the truth or falsehood of the religious traditions studied be kept outside its field. Religious studies involves the study of historical or contemporary practices or of those traditions' ideas using intellectual tools and frameworks that are not themselves specifically tied to any religious tradition and that are normally understood to be neutral or secular.

Sometimes, theology and religious studies are seen as being in tension, [66] and at other times, they are held to coexist without serious tension. Whether or not reasoned discussion about the divine is possible has long been a point of contention. Protagoras , as early as the fifth century BC, who is reputed to have been exiled from Athens because of his agnosticism about the existence of the gods, said that "Concerning the gods I cannot know either that they exist or that they do not exist, or what form they might have, for there is much to prevent one's knowing: the obscurity of the subject and the shortness of man's life.

Since at least the eighteenth century, various authors have criticized the suitability of theology as an academic discipline. Theology is a science that may justly be compared to the Box of Pandora. Many good things lie uppermost in it; but many evil lie under them, and scatter plagues and desolation throughout the world. Thomas Paine , a Deistic American political theorist and pamphleteer , wrote in his three-part work The Age of Reason published in , , and , "The study of theology, as it stands in Christian churches, is the study of nothing; it is founded on nothing; it rests on no principles; it proceeds by no authorities; it has no data; it can demonstrate nothing; and it admits of no conclusion.

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Not anything can be studied as a science, without our being in possession of the principles upon which it is founded; and as this is the case with Christian theology, it is therefore the study of nothing. The German atheist philosopher Ludwig Feuerbach sought to dissolve theology in his work Principles of the Philosophy of the Future : "The task of the modern era was the realization and humanization of God โ€” the transformation and dissolution of theology into anthropology. The American satirist Mark Twain remarked in his essay " The Lowest Animal ", originally written in around , but not published until after Twain's death in , [75] that "[Man] is the only animal that loves his neighbor as himself and cuts his throat if his theology isn't straight.

He has made a graveyard of the globe in trying his honest best to smooth his brother's path to happiness and heaven The higher animals have no religion. And we are told that they are going to be left out in the Hereafter. I wonder why? It seems questionable taste.

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Ayer , a British former logical-positivist , sought to show in his essay "Critique of Ethics and Theology" that all statements about the divine are nonsensical and any divine-attribute is unprovable. He wrote: "It is now generally admitted, at any rate by philosophers, that the existence of a being having the attributes which define the god of any non-animistic religion cannot be demonstratively proved The Jewish atheist philosopher Walter Kaufmann , in his essay "Against Theology", sought to differentiate theology from religion in general.

An attack on theology, therefore, should not be taken as necessarily involving an attack on religion. Religion can be, and often has been, untheological or even anti-theological. The English atheist Charles Bradlaugh believed theology prevented human beings from achieving liberty, [79] although he also noted that many theologians of his time held that, because modern scientific research sometimes contradicts sacred scriptures, the scriptures must therefore be wrong.

Ingersoll , an American agnostic lawyer, stated that, when theologians had power, the majority of people lived in hovels, while a privileged few had palaces and cathedrals. In Ingersoll's opinion, it was science that improved people's lives, not theology. Ingersoll further maintained that trained theologians reason no better than a person who assumes the devil must exist because pictures resemble the devil so exactly. The British evolutionary biologist Richard Dawkins has been an outspoken critic of theology. What makes you think that 'theology' is a subject at all?

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Study of the nature of deities and religious belief. General conceptions. Specific conceptions. In particular religions. Experiences Practices. Related topics. Main article: History of theology. Not just sincerity or frankness, but Honesty in the sense of a sheer openness to the Other. A set of skills, Andrew Shanks argues, which the church has very much still to learn.

True faith in God is faith in Honesty. But theological Honesty has three faces.


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